Xinluo C; Yinru C, 1990. Qin JianGuang; Fast AW; DeAnda D; Weidenbach RP, 1996. Reproduction and development of the snakehead Ophiocephalus argus warpachowskii (Berg). It exhibits a truncated tail, and can grow up to 85 cm in length (Okada, 1960). An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Most feeding activity occurs during early and late daylight hours, where the species lies in wait for prey in vegetation near shorelines of ponds or streams. The northern snakehead has become established in the Potomac River system and attempts at eradication and population control are being made by the states of Virginia and Maryland. Scales develop in juvenile fish between 4-4.5 cm TL (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). The species is well established in Kazakh­stan, the latitude of which is similar to that of the Vermont/Quebec border, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Salem, Oregon, in North America, which indicates a successful establishment at the northern range of distri­bution and confirms the risk should this snakehead become further established in North American (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). It is also found throughout the rivers of Korea with the exception of the north-eastern regions (Okada, 1960; Berg, 1965; Froese and Pauly, 2013). Intensive culture of snakehead (Channa striatus) during larval, juvenile and growth stages. Human health may be impacted by zoonotic diseases attributed to snakehead fishes. Journal of Ichthyology, 18:203-208. Fish Tale: When this alien, land-crawling predator turned up in seven states, Washington was forced to act. The pelvic fins have developed, the epibranchial breathing structures are functional and body colouration becomes brown. It is in fact a highly sought after food fish in Asia. The two species are most easily differentiated by the dark markings observed on the caudal peduncle. Expansion of a northern snakehead population in the Potomac River system. Kim IS, 1997. Northern Snakehead Working Group, 2007. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fish Society. None, intrinsically. Channa argus (Cantor, 1842). CABI is a registered EU trademark. Not all non-native fish are invasive, afterall. Masuda H; Amaoka K; Araga C; Uyeno T; Yoshino T, 1984. It was unintentionally introduced from Korea in the early 1900s and has become successfully established in many waters of central and southern Japan including Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku (Nakamura, 1963; Uyeno and Akai, 1984; Okada, 1960; Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Bulletin of Memorial Institute Biology. It is also a vector for disease and parasites, a number of which have been documented as affecting native species. Cui J; Ren X; Yu Q, 1991. Courtenay WR Jr; Williams JD, 1992. Say this for the fish: It is a marvelous survivor. Qin; JG; Fast AW, 2003. Consequently, there is considerable economic pressure to import or rear this fish. Chiba K; Taki Y Sakai K; Oozeki Y, 1989. Mat Jais AM; Dambisya YM; Lee TL, 1997. In tributaries of the Aral Sea, Kazakhstan, 1-5 metric tonnes of snakehead are fished commercially every year and this amount may increase to 10 metric tonnes annually in reservoirs of the Talas River, Kazakhstan (Baltz, 1991; Dukravets, 1992). 1216 pp. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Virginia, USA: Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF). However, in 2004, an established population of Snakeheads was found in the Potomac River. Or was it? Food and feeding rations of the Amur snakehead, Channa argus warpachowskii, in water bodies in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya. Aquaculture in Taiwan., ix + 273pp. The Amur snakehead, Channa argus warpachowskii, in the Talas and Chu River drainages. One northern snakehead down, countless more to go. Local state biologists have decided not to attempt eradication of established populations, and rather, have decided to continue monitoring population levels and dispersal opportunities (Sea Grant Pennsylvania, 2012). Fish and Wildlife Service; however, the effort was unsuccessful and cost more than $750,000 (W. Courtenay, USGS, USA, personal communication, 2010). Females are iteroparous (repeated reproductive events) and are capable of spawning one to five times per year (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Berg LS, 1965. Hoffman P, 2002. Penang, Malaysia: Southbound Sdn. The muscle of the snakehead fish, similarly to tuna, is high in mercury. Impacts. If broadly dispersed in large lakes or river systems, eradication or control would likely be impossible. The species may also be confused with the bowfin (Amia calva) which can be distinguished by having only a long dorsal fin and a short rounded anal fin, rather than having both dorsal and anal fins which are long, and the pelvic fins are inserted more posteriorly on the body. The Amur snakehead, Channa argus warpachowskii, in the Talas and Chu River drainages. Ridgebury Lake and Catlin Creek in New York State were treated with CFT Legumine (Rotenone) in order to eradicate C. argus argus. or bass (Micropterus sp.) http://www.fishace.demon.co.uk/snake/title.html. Environmental Impact. Many introductions of the northern snakehead are believed to be the result of intentional release of fish obtained from the live food trade (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Sci, 296:21-30. An obligate air breather it can survive out of water for up to four days by breathing oxygen from the atmosphere. Food consumption and growth of two piscivorous fishes, the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), Highly correlated with feeding frequencies, Non-indigenous Aquatic Species, United States Geography Survey, Northern Snakehead Website, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Ophiocephalus argus warpachowskii Berg, 1909, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Modification of natural benthic communities, Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices, Negatively impacts animal/plant collections, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately, Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally. Usmanova RG, 1982. Can't snakeheads live for a while outside of … USACE, 2004. Prior to changes to federal legislations in 2002 which resulted in a ban on the possession, culture and transportation of northern snakehead, it was cultured in fish farms from Arkansas (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Chen LC, 1990. Korean Journal of Zoology, 29:75-78. Natural communities, species diversity b. Vol. A report which identifies planning methods and details of the eradication techniques employed in the Crofton ponds is available at http://www.dnr.state.md.us/irc/ssap_report.html. Transactions of the St. Petersburg Philosophical Society, Zoological Division, 18:1-58. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The flesh is flaky and tastes clean. Acclimatization experiments with Amur snakehead, Ophiocephalus argus warpachowskii Berg, 1909. Snakeheads escaped from the ponds in 1964 and soon became established in the Syr Dar’ya (Amanov, 1974). Zhou ZW; Liu JG; Wang YX, 2002. Microplastics will definitely increase the potential health risks to humans through food chain, especially by commercial fishes. CABI, Undated. Acta zoologica (Stockholm), 68:165-171. Caryologia, 37:359-371. Most have blotches of dark scales flecked in white along the side of the body. The fish don't pose a human health risk, but people should use common sense when handling them. (snakehead fishes) as injurious wildlife in the Federal Register on July 26, 2002 (67 FR 48855) under the Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. Marine and Estuarine Species Information System. As a species which is capable of exploiting a wide range of environmental conditions as indicated by its native range (24-53º N) and temperature tolerance (0-30 ºC), this indicates that should northern snakehead be introduced, it is very likely that a population could be successfully established throughout the United States and Canada. It is found in Russia, in the Middle and lower Heilong (Amur) River basin, Songhua (Sungari) River, Manchuria and Tunguska River at Khabarovsk, Ussuri River basin, Lake Khanka (Herzenstein and Warpachowski, 1887; Berg, 1965; Popova, 2002; Reshetnikov et al., 1997). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 136:1633-1639. Nonindigenous aquatic species., http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/spCollections.asp?SpeciesID=2265, Bethany Schroeder, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Centre of Expertise for Aquatic Risk Assessment, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON  L7R 4A6, Canada, Becky Cudmore, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Centre of Expertise for Aquatic Risk Assessment, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON  L7R 4A6, Canada, Main Author More than 220 snakehead fish were removed, most of which were juveniles (NYDEC, 2008). The northern snakehead has the potential for widespread establishment due to a much broader latitudinal range and thermal tolerance than most other snakehead species. The snakehead inhabits shallow, marshy ponds and wetlands and is widely distributed in Japan where it preys on native fish species. Some are utilised as luxury specialty foods, available alive in aquaria for customer selection at upscale restaurants in larger cities such as Calcutta, Bangkok, Singapore, Hong Kong and other major locales. Contribution to Korea Institute of Ocean Science, National Fisheries University of Pusan, 25:46-55. At the stage of development, larvae reduce their tendencies for aggregation with conspecifics and migrate to deeper waters. Sexing of this fish by external morphology is difficult and can only be accurately determined in sexually mature individuals. The northern snakehead is a voracious, apex predator with few, if any, natural enemies. The species is now likely extirpated from the Aral Sea due to environmental change and a notable increase in salinity beyond the tolerance limits of snakeheads as a result of evaporation and water loss (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Fish are good indicator species for the overall health of the river because they are impacted by a host of environmental factors. Tokyo, Japan: Tokai University Press, 122 pp. Northern Snakehead Channa argus. Injurious wildlife species: snakeheads (family Channidae). Last year’s record-shattering rainfall led to low dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Some species, however, can pose a genuine problem. The northern snakehead may be introduced for a number of reasons despite imposed legislation. The use of passive gear, such as minnow traps, fyke nets, hoop nets etc., during the spring dispersal period may be an effective means of population control; however this has not yet been tested (N. Lapointe, Carleton University, Canada, personal communication, 2009). The bullseye snakehead (Channa marulius) has a flattened head with large scales, a torpedo-shaped body, long dorsal and anal fins without spines, and toothed jaws. The results of a formal Risk Assessment conducted by the Center of Expertise for Aquatic Risk Assessment, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada prepared by Cudmore and Mandrak (2006) Part I (Aquatic Organism Ecological and Genetic Risk Assessment Process) revealed a "High probability of establishment estimate" (reasonably certain) and a "High consequences of establishment estimate" (reasonably certain), giving a "Final Risk Estimate" of "High" (reasonably certain) for northern snakehead in the Great Lakes basin. The fish can breathe air and survive for up to four days out of water, and can survive for longer periods of time when burrowed in the mud. Snakehead fish usually contain a bit more muscle and fat content than your average salmon or tuna. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually, Average temp. 3rd edition, Beijing, China: Science Press, 749 pp. Fecundity is variable and ranges from 1300-15,000 eggs (average 7300 eggs) per spawning event. Its first discovery in the USA sparked national media attention, featuring in both regional and national newspapers and news programmes (Fuller, 2003). ), but for a long time we haven’t known what its presence means for the health of our native fish populations. In the early 1960s, C. argus argus was introduced into the Aral Sea basin (about 45ºN) and subsequently dispersed to the Amu Dar’ya, Syr Dar’ya, and Kashka-Dar’ya rivers of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan (Borisova, 1972; Amanov, 1974; Dukravets and Machulin, 1978; Usmanova, 1982; Guseva, 1990; Dukravets 1992). 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